Light Refreshment

The rising sophistication of emergency lighting systems implies that as well as being a vital a part of a building’s life safety infrastructure they’ll also get financial savings and cut back CO2 emissions due to the advantages clever LED-based solutions with superior battery know-how have over conventional systems.
Anyone who has had the misfortune of being in an unfamiliar building when a fireplace alarm is activated or a main lighting failure has occurred will perceive the true value of an emergency lighting system. Although we regularly take these acquainted green and white indicators without any consideration, emergency lighting’s role, as a half of an total life safety system, ought to never be underestimated. Recent years have witnessed significant advancements in the know-how deployed in these techniques, with the end result that they now supply a stage of intelligence that mixes power effectivity with reliability and ease-of-use.
Bad Behaviour
The method by which we use power is continually within the highlight and if additional proof was required of the necessity for all of us to deal with our behaviour it got here in a 2013 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It acknowledged that scientists are 95 percent sure that we are the ‘dominant cause’ of global warming for the explanation that Nineteen Fifties.
This may not come as much of a surprise. However, through higher awareness of the consequences of CO2, combined with the monetary implications of rising utility payments, organisations are extra willing and able than ever to make use of power properly. Growing laws and regulation means that businesses everywhere in the world are implementing power reduction measures. The focus is usually on adopting renewable power technologies corresponding to solar photovoltaics (PV), wind generators and ground and air supply heat pumps as ways to generate energy, while others are using building management techniques (BMS) to realize a holistic view of their power use and establish methods to decrease their consumption.
However, the strain is on to do much more, which is why constructing owners and managers are having to drill down and have a look at particular person elements of their building providers infrastructures to see whether there any further financial savings may be made.
Light Years Ahead
Modern emergency lighting methods supply the possibility for important power and cost financial savings. This is due to two key factors – the utilization of light emitting diode (LED) based mostly lighting and superior battery know-how.
Traditional emergency lighting methods utilise crude nickel cadmium, nickel metal hydride or lead acid batteries. They drive the centrally operated system by continually charging, discharging somewhat and then recharging – a process that makes use of pointless quantities of power and rapidly decreases the lifecycle of the battery. It implies that battery life is limited to between one and 4 years, dependent upon the application.
State-of-the-art clever expertise, nevertheless, utilises solely the quantity of energy needed to completely charge the emergency lighting batteries, and then shuts the battery down till an emergency scenario happens. This avoids degradation, prolongs life and reduces vitality consumption. Some methods are also obtainable with luminaires that are geared up with integral batteries permitting continued operation for at least three hours, even in circumstances where the management panel or power cables are broken. Maintained luminaires can be powered instantly from the line so as to not have an result on any battery capacity subsequently leaving the batteries in an “always ready” state.
So what kind of energy financial savings can be made as a result? It is estimated that clever battery methods use between 5 and ten % vitality of that a traditional battery system would use. Consider bigger installations of as much as 5,000 luminaires – which aren’t unusual in hospitals, for example – and the savings quickly turn into obvious.
Bright Spark
It is estimated that lighting accounts for more than 19 percent of the world’s complete electrical energy consumption. According to Green LED Solutions, if solely half of worldwide lighting was converted to LED by 2025, energy use can be cut by 120GW, saving £66 billion a 12 months and decreasing CO2 emissions from power plants by 350Mt over the identical period.
LED lighting has seen fast adoption and the worldwide market was price $25.four billion in 2013, based on a Digitimes Research Special Report. LED know-how is both value efficient and environmentally pleasant, making it a greener alternative to different systems that are at present out there and allowing working costs to be stored to a minimal without compromising efficiency.
LED expertise is now being used in emergency lighting systems and these new luminaires provide some impressive savings. For instance, they consume less than 0.5W, whereas an analogous 8W fluorescent mild exit luminaire will use roughly 12W. These methods also come with further power saving features, together with signage that’s connected through low voltage 40V cabling, which is powered and configured on the same loop via a single panel, giving excessive ranges of management by way of an automatic system.
Testing Times
All emergency lighting techniques have to be examined on a month-to-month foundation in compliance with BS EN 50172. The test itself normally includes flicking a manual swap, which interrupts the power provide to the luminaire, so that it illuminates. เกจวัดแรงดันแก๊สlpgรถยนต์ must be maintained for every emergency luminaire and entered into a logbook, which have to be obtainable for inspection by the authorities at any time. Failure to offer full check data may end up in legal action and closure of the constructing, and if the emergency lighting is defective, the insurance policy for the constructing could additionally be invalid.
On the floor this all appears reasonable and fulfils the necessities of the Standard, nevertheless, the testing course of itself is flawed and does not necessarily end in a secure and totally useful system. All it does is check that the system works for a few seconds when the handbook swap is operated – what happens if the system fails 5 minutes after the test? It won’t be retested for another month, so could depart a building’s occupants vulnerable in the meantime.
Also, it does not test just for how lengthy the luminaires will keep on and whether or not the battery has sufficient energy to take care of operation for the interval specified in the related requirements. The time required to evacuate the premises is dependent upon its dimension and complexity. The length itself depends not solely on evacuation time but additionally on whether or not the premises are evacuated instantly the power and normal lighting fails and/or are reoccupied instantly the availability is restored.
BS EN 50172 states the minimum period of an emergency lighting system as one hour. However, a minimal length of three hours must be used for emergency lighting if the premises are not evacuated immediately, as in the case of sleeping accommodation, for instance, or if the premises will be reoccupied immediately the availability is restored with out waiting for the batteries to be recharged. It must also be noted that to adjust to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) one hundred and one Life Safety Code, emergency lights are required to remain lit for 90 minutes.
Modern emergency lighting management panels continuously monitor and take a look at functionality in actual time. They can additionally be pre-programmed to carry out specific month-to-month, six monthly and annual exams and additionally it is potential to set operational parameters as much as alert when batteries are at eighty five percent capacity, providing a excessive stage of reassurance that the system will work accurately beneath all circumstances.
Lighting consumes 19 p.c of all electrical energy in the world.
The first LED system was crafted in 1907 by Captain H J Round, a British radio expertise pioneer and a personal assistant to Guglielmo Marconi.
Nick Holonyak Jr is taken into account ‘the father of the fashionable LED’. In 1962, whereas working at General Electric, he developed the primary virtually useful visible spectrum LED system for industrial use.
In 2009, a typical 13W LED lamp emitted 450-650 lumens, which is equal to a standard 40W incandescent bulb. LEDs have turn into more efficient, so that now a 6W LED can easily achieve the identical outcomes.
LEDs produce a protracted service lifetime of between 50,000 hours and 100,000 hours. This compares with 2,000-5,000 hours for a halogen bulb and 8,000 hours to fifteen,000 hours for a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL).
Unlike CFLs LEDs don’t contain mercury and could be extra safely disposed of.
LEDs emit no ultraviolet radiation (UV) or infrared (IR), which makes them good to illuminate costly objects such as photographs, collections, paintings etc.
LEDs produce extra light than heat, which makes them the most secure form of lighting and reduces the risk of fires.
Right Place, Right Time
Evacuation is normally hindered by a lack of detailed data of the internal connectivity of the constructing house, along with complicated and poorly thought out directions. Studies have additionally proven that in these conditions occupants often make use of acquainted routes – sometimes utilizing the exit by way of which they entered the constructing. Even more worryingly, analysis from the University of Greenwich, as part of its research known as Human Behaviour in Fire Network (HUBFIN), discovered that solely 38 % of people see passive signage in an emergency. This is a frightening statistic and only serves to highlight the significance of siting an emergency lighting system in a means that will information individuals to a protected location in the event of a mains lighting failure.
BS EN 50172 provides guidance on the positioning of luminaires, supplies a minimum normal that must be applied and provides guidance on specific hazards and points of emphasis that need to be accounted for. Points of emphasis are mandatory places the place lighting must highlight particular hazards, safety tools and indicators. These embody areas near stairs, close to changes of degree, at each change of course, close to firefighting equipment and guide name factors, exterior and close to to every last exit, first aid factors, at exit doors, and close to security signs.
Signs are both internally of externally illuminated and the maximum viewing distances for internally illuminated signs is 200 occasions the panel height, and one hundred times the panel height for externally illuminated signs. Luminaires must offer 1Lux of output in escape routes and zero.5Lux in open areas. Emergency lighting must also be positioned in such a means to ensure that persons are free from disability glare, which may stop obstructions or signs from being properly seen.
It is price remembering that Industry Committee for Emergency Lighting (ICEL) approved products are independently examined and meet the current product and utility requirements. Therefore, choosing products with ICEL approval will present reassurance of compliance.
Look to the Future
The problems with passive signage are clear from the University of Greenwich’s HUBFIN analysis, which is why the mixing of fireside detection and emergency lighting systems is the following step in including intelligence and greater effectiveness to a life security infrastructure.
A conventional emergency lighting system does not permit signs to be ‘shut off’, which might enable people to unwittingly travel into the path of danger. In places similar to hospitals and care houses, where folks usually have restricted mobility, time is of the essence and should not be wasted by having to decipher probably the most acceptable escape route.
By integrating a hearth detection system with emergency lighting, and by figuring out the place a fireplace is going down, the right route could be configured and communicated. For example, by responding to data despatched from the hearth detectors it’s potential to put a pink ‘X’ on particular emergency luminaires, which indicators to individuals not to exit through that particular route. This can be synchronised with the prevailing PA/VA system, adding another stage of safety.
Not solely does integration make good sense from a security viewpoint, it has numerous cost saving and environmental advantages. It is estimated that it may scale back the complete system’s wiring content material by seventy five %, as there could be just one loop with each capabilities.
Feature Packed
A correctly specified, installed and maintained emergency lighting system is essential in order to give occupants a way of evacuating a constructing safely within the occasion of a mains lighting failure, or if required, a hearth. The laws, requirements and steering on this topic are complete and the advanced LED lighting and battery technology that’s now obtainable combines reliability, performance and value with another method to save power.

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